"Ask Obama about that, ask Hillary Clinton about that," Rodman said. "Ask those ---holes."
Rodman had previously made no secret about his desire to help Bae, who has been transferred to a hospital after his health deteriorated. The retired NBA player once tweeted that he wanted Kim to "do him a solid" by freeing the American prisoner.
But Rodman's friendship with Kim, an avid basketball fan, doesn't appear to carry enough weight to get Bae out of jail.
U.S. officials have repeatedly called on North Korean officials to release Bae, who was convicted earlier this year of attempting to bring down the government. Pyongyang last month abruptly withdrew an invitation to a U.S. envoy who was to travel there to try to secure Bae's release.
Rodman was criticized over his first visit to North Korea, in February, during which he was pictured laughing and eating while watching a basketball game with Kim.
That visit came during a period of escalating tensions in which North Korea threatened missile strikes on the United States and South Korea. The situation has gradually calmed over recent months.
In his comments to the Guardian on Sunday, Rodman, one of the greatest rebounders in NBA history, continued to defend the North's young leader.
"Kim is a great guy, he loves basketball, and he's interested in building trust and understanding through sport and cultural exchanges," he said.